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actualites
App\Entity\Actualites {#445
  -title: "BIO GUERRA, LE CAVALIER IMPERIAL ET IMPARABLE"
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    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Le dimanche 17 d&eacute;cembre 1916, dans le village Baubra - actuelle commune de Bemb&egrave;r&egrave;k&egrave; - disparaissait, sous le bruit des balles des hommes du commandant fran&ccedil;ais Ferius, le prince wassangari Bio Guerra. L&rsquo;information, comme une train&eacute;e de poudre, se r&eacute;pandit partout et la population qui croyait son h&eacute;ros invincible, ne c&eacute;da pas &agrave; la panique. Mais de tous les vents, la nouvelle revint, plus insistante, finissant par provoquer la consternation dans le pays. La guerre que le prince avait commenc&eacute;e contre l&rsquo;occupant fran&ccedil;ais venait ainsi de s&rsquo;achever, scellant d&eacute;finitivement l&rsquo;entr&eacute;e de cette localit&eacute; dans l&rsquo;&egrave;re et l&rsquo;administration coloniales.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Comment cet homme, cavalier et meneur d&rsquo;hommes ou grand leader, a-t-il r&eacute;ussi &agrave; construire ce parcours de r&eacute;sistant&nbsp;? Qu&rsquo;est-ce qui a motiv&eacute; cette r&eacute;silience&nbsp;peu ordinaire et donc peu commune ? Que connait-on du personnage, de ses parents, de son enfance&nbsp;? Plus d&rsquo;un si&egrave;cle apr&egrave;s ses derniers soupirs sur le champ de bataille et quarante-sept ans apr&egrave;s avoir &eacute;t&eacute; d&eacute;clar&eacute; <strong><em>&laquo;&nbsp;h&eacute;ros national&nbsp;&raquo;</em></strong>, Bio Guerra continue encore de susciter int&eacute;r&ecirc;t et fascination. Comme Gb&ecirc;hanzin, sa vie et ses &oelig;uvres m&eacute;ritent d&rsquo;&ecirc;tre connues. Les valeurs qu&rsquo;il a d&eacute;fendues et qui ont fait de lui une figure marquante et embl&eacute;matique de notre histoire se doivent et m&eacute;ritent d&rsquo;&ecirc;tre transmises, d&rsquo;&ecirc;tre l&eacute;gu&eacute;es &agrave; la post&eacute;rit&eacute; et ceci, de g&eacute;n&eacute;ration en g&eacute;n&eacute;ration.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">De sa naissance en 1856 &agrave; Gbassi (Kalal&eacute;) &agrave; sa disparition en 1916,&nbsp;Bio Guerra aura v&eacute;cu une vie pleine, partag&eacute;e entre ses activit&eacute;s paysannes et son engagement politique devenu, au fil de l&rsquo;&eacute;volution de l&rsquo;arm&eacute;e coloniale fran&ccedil;aise sur ses terres, une r&eacute;bellion arm&eacute;e, puis une force de r&eacute;sistance.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">De son nom de prince wassangari Gbaasi N&rsquo;Guerra, le futur Bio Guerra &eacute;tait un cultivateur d&eacute;vou&eacute; &agrave; son travail &agrave; l&rsquo;exemple de plusieurs de ses cong&eacute;n&egrave;res. Eduqu&eacute; &agrave; monter &agrave; cheval, &agrave; manier l&rsquo;arc et les fl&egrave;ches, &agrave; servir comme guerrier de r&eacute;serve de l&rsquo;arm&eacute;e du roi du Nikki, il devint chef du village de Gb&ecirc;kou dans la commune de Bemb&egrave;r&egrave;k&egrave;, poste qu&rsquo;il occupa &agrave; mi-temps ou en temps partiel, le reste de ses activit&eacute;s &eacute;tant champ&ecirc;tres.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">En 1910, les Fran&ccedil;ais, apr&egrave;s avoir d&eacute;fait le royaume du Danhom&egrave;, initi&egrave;rent une autre exp&eacute;dition militaire pour concr&eacute;tiser leur volont&eacute; de soumettre les territoires du nord jusqu&rsquo;&agrave; la boucle du Niger. Il s&rsquo;agissait pour eux, de parachever la conqu&ecirc;te de l&rsquo;ensemble du pays. Ils sign&egrave;rent alors un accord de protectorat avec le roi de Nikki. Mais en r&eacute;alit&eacute;, c&rsquo;&eacute;tait un subterfuge pour limiter le pouvoir du souverain et occuper le terrain. Bio Guerra observa l&rsquo;&eacute;volution de la pr&eacute;sence fran&ccedil;aise avec doute et interrogations.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Les Fran&ccedil;ais ne cach&egrave;rent plus alors leurs intentions. Ayant quasiment quadrill&eacute; et militaris&eacute; l&rsquo;ensemble du royaume, ils firent progressivement de ses habitants, leurs nouveaux sujets. Ils &eacute;largirent ainsi leur h&eacute;g&eacute;monie en instaurant et imposant leurs lois, cr&eacute;&egrave;rent des taxes, &eacute;rig&egrave;rent des barri&egrave;res, des fronti&egrave;res et contraignirent les populations au bout de la ba&iuml;onnette ou &agrave; coup de carrosse, &agrave; s&rsquo;y conformer.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Pour Bio Guerra, il s&rsquo;agissait d&rsquo;un imp&eacute;rialisme d&rsquo;Etat, l&rsquo;occupation de leur terre par une force &eacute;trang&egrave;re. Gr&acirc;ce &agrave; sa prestance, &agrave; sa notori&eacute;t&eacute;, &agrave; sa c&ocirc;te de popularit&eacute; et avec la complicit&eacute; de ses cong&eacute;n&egrave;res, il mobilisa discr&egrave;tement des jeunes, les organisa en de petits groupes, une sorte de troupes et d&eacute;fia ainsi, l&rsquo;autorit&eacute; coloniale en exhortant toute la population &agrave; ne payer ni imp&ocirc;t, ni taxe impos&eacute;s par le colon. Effarouch&eacute;s par cet &eacute;lan h&eacute;ro&iuml;que, le patronat fran&ccedil;ais se rendit &agrave; Gb&eacute;kou pour le faire arr&ecirc;ter et le faire incarc&eacute;rer. Et, Bio Guerra ayant gagn&eacute; le maquis, les nouveaux maitres en profit&egrave;rent pour le destituer, installant &agrave; sa place quelqu&rsquo;un d&rsquo;autre qui leur fit all&eacute;geance et leur jura une d&eacute;f&eacute;rence et une fid&eacute;lit&eacute; obs&eacute;quieuses.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Malgr&eacute; cette d&eacute;cision, la d&eacute;fiance, &agrave; l&rsquo;&eacute;gard des Fran&ccedil;ais par la population, ne s&rsquo;estompa gu&egrave;re. Beaucoup d&rsquo;habitants continuaient par s&rsquo;opposer aux nouvelles r&egrave;gles de l&rsquo;administration naissante, en restant r&eacute;fractaires aux imp&ocirc;ts et aux taxes. Bio Guerra, discr&egrave;tement, les y encourageait, en multipliant aupr&egrave;s des jeunes qu&rsquo;il contactait nuitamment, de fermes instructions et injonctions de d&eacute;sob&eacute;issance, nourrissant et rendant ainsi la fronde plus forte. Souvent tax&eacute; de <strong><em>&laquo;&nbsp;rebelle&nbsp;&raquo;,</em></strong> Gbaassi N&rsquo;Guera fut finalement et officiellement d&eacute;clar&eacute; <strong><em>&laquo;&nbsp;ennemi public&nbsp;&raquo;</em></strong> dont il fallait se d&eacute;barrasser.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dans la p&eacute;riph&eacute;rie de Bemb&egrave;r&egrave;k&egrave;, Nikki, Parakou, les attaques contre les soldats fran&ccedil;ais se multipli&egrave;rent. Une gu&eacute;rilla sanglante monta au front et fit spectaculairement preuve de doigt&eacute; et de dext&eacute;rit&eacute; &agrave; travers maintes op&eacute;rations de traque et de tueries en s&eacute;rie, et les chiffres statistiques s&rsquo;annonc&egrave;rent faramineux dans le camp de l&rsquo;arm&eacute;e d&rsquo;occupation. Deux facteurs intrins&egrave;ques ont eu &agrave; militer en faveur du souverain-r&eacute;sistant, l&rsquo;imp&eacute;rial et l&rsquo;imparable Bio Guerra, et &agrave; consid&eacute;rablement jouer dans cette victoire l&eacute;gendaire : sa connaissance et sa maitrise du terrain et la disponibilit&eacute; de ses continuelles ou encore espions dispos&eacute;s un peu partout et strat&eacute;giquement dans la r&eacute;gion.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Les Fran&ccedil;ais avaient quand m&ecirc;me r&eacute;ussi &agrave; pouvoir s&rsquo;infiltrer et &agrave; implanter un camp &agrave; Bemb&egrave;r&egrave;k&egrave; d&rsquo;o&ugrave; leurs forces partaient pour effectuer des op&eacute;rations dans les environs. Bio Guerra attendit le retour des soldats d&eacute;ploy&eacute;s dans les localit&eacute;s avoisinantes pour organiser le si&egrave;ge de la ville. En fait, il s&rsquo;agissait pour le prince wassangari et ses hommes de priver les troupes &eacute;trang&egrave;res de vivres en vue de les asphyxier, de les an&eacute;antir sans avoir &agrave; recourir forc&eacute;ment aux munitions. Du 12 au 29 octobre 1916, le quartier g&eacute;n&eacute;ral des Fran&ccedil;ais fut contraint de rester enferm&eacute; et, dans son courroux sans cesse endurci, et pour leur emp&ecirc;cher le ravitaillement, Bio Guerra coupa les seules et uniques voies fluviales et terrestres les plus accessibles et praticables. Les &eacute;ventuels renforts du camp adverse, les <strong><em>&laquo;&nbsp;singes roux&nbsp;&raquo;</em></strong> - c&rsquo;est ainsi qu&rsquo;ils se faisaient appeler - venait soit de Parakou soit d&rsquo;Abomey.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Si les premi&egrave;res semaines lui semblaient favorables, le temps finit par jouer contre le rebelle wassangari. Longtemps enferm&eacute;s et priv&eacute;s de ressources vitales, les envahisseurs trouv&egrave;rent enfin le moyen d&rsquo;exfiltrer des premi&egrave;res lignes du front en se d&eacute;guisant et en se travestissant. Ceux-ci all&egrave;rent informer les troupes qui attaqu&egrave;rent sans attendre les hommes de Bio Guerra. Le prince wassangari et ses fid&egrave;les durent se replier dans la for&ecirc;t. L&rsquo;arm&eacute;e fran&ccedil;aise organisa une traque impitoyable contre eux. Epuis&eacute; et ployant sous le poids de l&rsquo;&acirc;ge et surtout de toutes ces ann&eacute;es de r&eacute;bellion, Bio Guerra finit par &ecirc;tre rep&eacute;r&eacute; et rattrap&eacute; &agrave; la hauteur de Bobra, &agrave; une quinzaine de kilom&egrave;tres au nord-est de Bemb&egrave;r&egrave;k&egrave;. Il &eacute;tait avec son fils ain&eacute; et une trentaine de ses hommes.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Apr&egrave;s un heurt d&rsquo;une heure, il est abattu au m&ecirc;me moment que toute sa suite, le 16 d&eacute;cembre 1917.</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify">&nbsp;</p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></p>\r\n
    \r\n
    <p style="text-align:justify"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Un r&eacute;cit de Florent COUAO-ZOTTI</span></span></span></span></p>\r\n
    """
  -sousmenu: Proxies\__CG__\App\Entity\Sousmenu {#521 …}
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  -id: "1edf3deb-b657-6a66-9ac2-8379bca105b3"
  -createdAt: DateTimeImmutable @1684237347 {#459
    date: 2023-05-16 13:42:27.0 Europe/Paris (+02:00)
  }
  -updatedAt: DateTimeImmutable @1700286465 {#468
    date: 2023-11-18 06:47:45.0 Europe/Paris (+01:00)
  }
}
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Session 6

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6 Usages
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Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\DataCollector\RequestDataCollector:76
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Server Parameters

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MESSENGER_TRANSPORT_DSN
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BASE
"/public"
CONTENT_LENGTH
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"/home/c2049812c/public_html"
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HTTP_X_FORWARDED_SERVER
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HTTP_X_TARGET_BACKEND
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LSPHP_ENABLE_USER_INI
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PATH
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PHP_SELF
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PWD
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""
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SERVER_SOFTWARE
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TEMP
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TMPDIR
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UNIQUE_ID
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